Philosophy of language in general
The tree of philosophy (by Steve Palmquist, Hong Kong University)
Philosophy of mind and cognitive science (Hong Kong University, Department of Philosophy)
Philosophy of language (an archive of philosopher, topics and papers by contemporary authors) (a superb site)
Kent Bach's site on the philosophy of language (Frege, Russell, Strawson, etc.)
New essays in philosophy of language (a Canadian journal)
Philosophy of language since the 1950s
My philosophy of language (by Laurence Jonas)



Philosophers of Language

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (1890-1963) was one of theleaders of the "Warsaw school of philosophy". He received his doctorate from Lwow, where he studied under Jan Lukasievicz. His distingushed teaching career at the Universities of Lwow, Poznan, and Warsaw began in 1921 and lasted until his retirement in 1961; it was interrupted only by World War II. He served as organizer, editor, and contributor for many international inquiries into problems of logic, philosphy of science, and linguistic analysis. Ajdukiewicz's own work was especially concerned with issues in semantics and wit the relation between language and knowledge. Among his better known papers are "Sprache und Sinn" (1924), "Epistemology and Semiotic" (1945), "The Scientific World-Perspective" (1935), and "Logic and Experience" (1950). Most of his more important papers have been collected in Jezyk I Poznanie [Language and Knowlede] (1960-1965).

John Langshaw Austin
(1911-1960) was educated at Shrewsbury School and at Oxford. He became a fellow and tutor at Oxford in 1935 and was White's Professor of Moral Philosphy at Oxford form 1952 until his death in 1960. Although he was long appreciated by his colleagues and students as a first-rate philosopher, his international reputation has grown significantly since his death through thr posthumous publication of his papers and lectures. His papers have appeared in Philosophical Papers (1961) and his lectures in Sense and Sensibilia (1962) and How to Do Things with Words (1962).

Alfred JUles Ayer
(b.1910) is Wykeham Porfessor of Logic at Oxford. he was educated at Eton and Oxford, served in the Welsh Guards and in Military Intelligence during the Second World War, and taught at Wadham College and the University of London before assuming his present post in 11959. His Language, Truth and Logic (1936) established him as the principal exponent of logical posivitism in Britian. The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge (1940) and The Problems of Knowledge (1954) and The Concept of a Person (1963) are collections of papers on a variety of philosophical topics. In addition to editing th ebook, Logical Posivitism (195(0, he is the editor of the International Library pf Philosophy and Scientific Method and of the Pelican Philosophy Series.

Gustav Bergmann
(b. 1906) is Professor of Philosophy at the Unviersity of Iowa and was a memeber of the Vienna Circle before coming to the United States. He has written many influential papers in philosophy of science, linguistic analysis, and metaphysics. Metaphysics of logical Posivitism (1954)is a collection of papers on the foundations of his philosophical stance, and Philosophy of Science (1957) summarizes many of his views in that area of study. His Meaning and Existence (1960) and Logic and Reality (1964) reflect his increaisng interest in metaphysical concerns.

Max Black
(b.1909) studied at Cambridge, Gottingen, and London before coming to the United States in 1940. He first taught at the University of Illinois and is now Susan Linn Sage Professor of Philosophy at Cornell Unversity. He has didsitnguished himself as a critic and as an editor on a wide variety of philosophical and related concerns, but he is best known for his work in philosophy of language and linguisitc analysis. He is the author of The Nature of Mathematics (1933), Critical Thinking (1952), and A Comparison to Wittgenstein's Tractatus (1966). many of his papers are collected in Language and Philosophy (1949), Problems of analysis (1954), and Models and Metaphors (1962).

Ruldolf Carnap
(b. 1891) was a member of the Vienna Circle and has become the best known of the logical positivists. He studied in Jena and taught in Vienna and Prague before coming to the United States in 1935. He taught at the unviersity of Chicago until 1954 and at the Unviersity of California at Los Angeles from 1954 until his retirement. His Logical Structure of the World (1928), provided an early statement of positivistic principles, and his "Testability and Meaning" (1936, 1937) pointed the way to some modifications of the earlier work. His work with language in The Logical Syntax of Langauge (1934) was expanded in Introduction to Semantics (1942) and Meaning and Necessity (1947). His many books and papers on the foundations of logic, mathematics, probability, and science have been widely influential.

Ernst Cassirer
(1874-1945) was a philospher of international distinction in the history of philosophy, the philosophy of science, and the philosophy of language. Born in Germany, Cassirer studied and taught at the University of Marburg, where he was influenced by, and became an advocate of, the neo-Kantian thought that prevailed there. Exiled from Germany in 1932, he succeeded W. M. Urban as Professor of Philosophy at Yale in 1841. Urban appreciated Cassirer's studies of symbolic form, but the only work of Cassirer that had been translated into English wa shis early studies in epistemology and philosphy of science. Not until his Essay on Man appeared in 1944 and his Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (1923-1931) was translated in 1953 did he become known in this country for his philosophy of language and of culutre.

Jerry Alan Fodor
(b.1935) is Associate Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he has taught since 1960. Born in New York City, Fodor studied at Columbia and received his Ph.D. from Princeton. He has publsihed many articles of distinction on isses in psycholinguisitcs, the psychologies of cognition and perception, philosopy of psychology, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind. He has editied The Structure of Language (with J. J. Katz, 1964) and written Psychological Explanation (1968). Professor Fodor has held Woodrow Wilson and Fulbight Fellowships and is now Fellow of the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences.

Henry Nelson Goodan
(b. 1906) is Henry Austryn Wolfson Professor of Philosophy at Brandeis university. He studied at Harvard, taught briefly at Tufts, and enjoyed a tenure at Pennsylvannia of almost twenty years before assuring his present post in 1964. He has been visiting professor and lecturer at several other leading universities, including Harvard, London, and Oxford. a contributor to journals on topics in th ephilosophy of science, logic, and epistemology, he is perhaps best known for his books, Structure of Appearance (1951), and Fact, Fiction and Forecast (1955).

Herbert Paul Grice
(b. 1913) is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California at Berkeley. Born in Birmingham, England, he
studied at Oxford and became Fellow and Tutor in St. John's in 1939, a post he held until 1967. His rigor and insight as a teacher during the thirty years at Oxford established him as a philosopher of the first rank in the eyes of his colleagues and students. Such articles as "Personal Identity" (1941), "The Causal Theory of Perception" (1961), ad "Some Remarks about the Senses" (1966), together with the articles ("Meaning", pp.251-258) published in this volume, have brought internaitonal attention to his work in philosophy. He has taught at Cornell and Brandeis, and he was William James lecturer at Harvard in 1967.

Carl Gustav Hempel
(b.1905) is Stuart Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University. Born in Germany, he studied at the University of Berlin and soon became one of the leaders in the Society of Empirical Philosophy, a Berlin group related to the Vienna Circle. He came to the United States in the late thirties and has continued to practice and inter[ret logical analysis in the tradition of logical posivitism. He taught at Queens College and Yale University before going to Princeton. He has written extensively on problems of analysis, logic, and scientific mehtod. among his major works are Fundamentals of Concept Formation in Empirical Science (1952), Aspects of Scientific Explanation (1965), and Philosophy of Natural Science (1966).

Immanuel Kant
(1726-1806), who never traveled beyond a few miles from his home in Konigsberg, has had far-reaching influence on the thought of the past two centuries. He entered the University of Konigsberg as a theology student but was soon led by Wolff's philosophy and Newton's physics into problems i epistemology. His early work in physicis anticipated subsequent developments in astronomy, and his "Corpernican revolution" in theory of knowledge laid the basis for philosophical developments in the nieteenth century as diverse as German idealism, positivism, and existentialism. He has an equally impressive effect on developments in ethical theory, and a somewhat lesser influence on aesthetics, philosophy of religion, and philosophy of history. His principal works include Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783), Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785), Critique of Practical Reason (1788), Critique of Judgment (1790), and Religion within the Bounds of Reason Alone (1793).

Jerrold Jacob Katz
(b. 1932) is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He studied and taught at Princeton before taking his current post. He has worked closely with linguists and psycholinguists who have been exploring the implications of Noam Chomsky's notion of a transformational grammar and has especially interested in its implications for philosophy. His published work includes The Porblem of Induction and its Solution (1960), The Structure of Language (with J. A. Fodor, 1964), An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Description (with P. Postal, 1964), and The Philosophy of Language (1966).

Clarence Irving Lewis
(1883-1964), late Edgar Pierce Professor of Philosophy, taught at Harvard from 1920 until his retirement in 1953. The influence on his thinking of both Kant and Pierce can be seen in his work on philosophy of language, epistemology, and ethetics. He is perhaps best known for his developments of modal logic and of strict implication in logic, and for his notion of the pragmatic a priori and his analysis of the given in epistemology. Much of his work culminated in his Carus Lectures, which have been published as An Analysis of Symbolic Logic (1918), Mind and the World Order (1929), Symbolic Logic (with C. H. Langford, 1932, 1959), and The Ground and Nature of the Right (1955).

Leonard Linksy
(b. 1922) is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Chicago. After receiving his ph.D. from the Unviersity of Califirnia in 1948, he taught for almost twenty years at the University of Illinois and was a guest lecturer at the Unviersity of Wisconsin and th eUniversity of Michigan. In addition to publishing a number of papers on philosophical analysis, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind, he edited Semantics and the Philosphy of Language (1952), wich has been for many years an important source book for inquiry in the field. His Referring (1967) gives a detailed background exposition and critique of the problem that his contribution to this book is concerned with.

Benson Mates
(b. 1919) is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California at Berkeley. He studied at the University of Oregon, Cornell University, and the University of California before going to Berkeley in 1948. in addition to his works in philosophy of language expresed in his paper on synonymity, his studies in logic have been published in Stoic Logic (1953) and Elementary Logic (1965), as well as in articles in variou journals.

Maurice Merleau-Pony
(1908-1961) was Professor of Philosophy at Lyon and later at the Sorbonne. In 1953 he became th eyoungest man to hold the post of Porfessor of Philosophy at the College de France. Influenced by Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre, he devoted his philosophical energies to applying phenomenological mehtods to perception and language. He has been principally influential on philosophical psychology on the continent and is often popularly classified as an "existentialist". His principal works are The Structure of Behavior (1942), Phenomenology of Perception (1945), Sense and Non-Sense (1948), In Praise of Philosophy (1953), signs (1960), and The Visible and th einvisible (1964). a number of his more important papers have been translated into English and collected in The Primacy of Perception (1964).

Ernest Nagel
(b. 1901) is John Dewey Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University, where he has taught since 1931. an admirer of C. S. Peirce and an associate of Morris Cohen, he has developed an interest in science ad logic and a stance of "contextualistic naturalism" that have made him an uunequivocal foe of speculative metaphysics. His work on science and logic includes On the Logic of Measurement (1930), a Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method (with Cohen, 1934), Principes of the Theory of Probability (1939), Godel's Proof (with J. R. Newman, 1958), and The Structure of Science (1961). His naturalism is well reflected in the papers collected in Sovereign Reason (1954) and Logic Without Metaphysics (1956).

Arthur Pap
(b.1921-1959) was distinguished not only by his analytic precision, but by the breadth of his experiences, interests, orientations, and temperaments. Born in Zurich, he moved to New York with his family in 1941 ad studied at Juilliard witht he intention of becoming a concert pianist, but soon turned his energies to philosophy. As his interest in philosophy increased, his position shifted from his studies of Hegel at Zurich to studies with Cassirer at Yale, with Nagel at Columbia, with Carnap at Chicago. He taught at the Unviersity of chicago, City College of New York, the University of Oregon, and Lehigh University before taking his final post at Yale University in 1955. he was a Fulbright lecturer at the University of Vienna, and he also lectured at Uppsala, Copenhagen, Oxford, and Cambridge. Elements of  Analytic Philosophy (1949), Semantics and Necessary Truth (1958), ad an Introduction to te Philosophy of Science (1962) are perhaps the most important of his numerous publications.

Charles Sanders Santiago Peirce
(b. 1839-1914) was a scientist, logician, and philosopher of little note in his own time, who in recent years has become recognized as one of the leading philosophers in Americna history. the son of a Harvard mathematician, he studied at Harvard, then worked for a number o fyears for the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. He taught for four years at the John Hopkins Uiversity but was not a popular teacher; even his closest friends found him an irritating personality. William James attempted without success to secure him a position at Harvard, and Peirce lived the rest of his life in secluded poverty. Influenced i his thinking by Kant, Hegel, Duns and Scotus, and the evolutionary biologists, he is best known as the father  of pragmaticism,  but his contributions to science and logic are considerable and his metaphysics continues to be a subject of historical and systematic study and debate. Only a few articles and reviews were published while he lived, but most of his writings have been collected in the eight-volume Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce (1931-1935; 1938).

Willard Van Orman Quine 
(b. 1908) is Edgar Pierce Professor of Philosophy at Harvard. after studying at Oberlin, Harvard, and Oxford, he became an instructor at Harvard in 1936. His teaching there has been interrupted only by military service in World War II and by lecturing at the Universities of Sao Paulo, Adelaide, Tokyo, London, and others. Quine is internationally known as a logician, philosopher of language, and metaphisician. His writings nclude Mathematical Logic (1940), Methods of Logic (1950), Word and Object (1960), and Set Theory ad Its Logic (1963). a number of his papers have been collected in From a Logical Point of View (1953), Ways of Paradox (1966), and Selected Logical Papers (1966).

Ivor Armstrong Richards
(b. 1893) is Emeritus Professor of English Literature at Harvard. Born in Chestire, England, he studied at Cambridge and taught at Harvard from 1939 until his retirement in 1963. His diversity of interests and skills is reflected in the variety of his writing: his philosophical and psychological acumen in The Meaning of Meaning (with C. K. Ogden, 1923); his skill in translating in Mencius on the Mind (1932); his aethetic insight in Philosophy of Rhetoric (1936); his poetry in such collections as Goodbye Earth, and Other Poems (1958); and his ability as a playwright in Why So, Socrates? (1964). Speculative Instruments (1955) is a collection of some of his papers, and So Much Nearer (1968) gives insight into his inquiry.


Bertrand Arthur William Russell  (b. 1872) is perhaps best known of all living philosophers. His fame stems from his involvement in
popular and political controversies as much as from his academic accomplishments, from his clear, forceful, graceful, witty writing as much as from th eworth of what he has to say. His popularity may be assured by such works as Marriage and Morals (1929) and Why I AM Not a Christian (1957), or even by his exposition of philosophy and science in such books as A Hisotry of Western Philosophy (1946) and The ABC of Relativity (1925), but his place in history is assured by his work on the foundations of mathematics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of science. Principia Mathematica (with A. N. Whitehead, 1910-1913), Our Knowledge of the External World (1914), The analysis of Matter (1948) are only a few of his major works in these areas. Lord Russell studied at Cambridge and taught there until 1916, when he was removed from his post at Trinity College and later jailed for his pacifist activities. He has since taught and lectured occasionally at several major universities. In 1940, he was invited to take a chair at the City College of New York, but the offer was later annulled on the ground that he might undermine the health and morals of his students -- since Socrates, a tribute to any philosopher. His many honors include the Order of Merit and the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Gilbert Ryle
(b. 1900) is the editor of Mind and was until 1968 Waynflete Professor of Metaphysical Philosophy at Oxford University. His "Systematicialy Misleading Expressions" (1931-1932) early estabilsihed him as one of the leading developers of analytical techniques in Britain; his "Plato's 'Parmentides'" (1939) laid a basis for the re-evaluation not only of that particular dialog, but of all of way to a fresh apprach to th emind-body problem and to a new treatment of problems in philosophical psychology. Professor Ryle's analytic methods are often lumped together with those of Austin and other "ordinary-language analysts," but they differ from them perhaps as much as they do from the logical analysis of the positivists. A method of resolving philosophical paradoxes by examining "categories" is elaborated in Philosophical Auguments (1945) and applied in Dilemmas (1954). Ryle's studies of Plato have produced the adventurous and erudite Plato's Progress (1966), and his work in philosophical psychology has resulted in The concept of Mind (1949); both have been objects of admiration and ocntroversy in their fields. Professor Ryle studied at Oxford and has taught there since 1924, except during World War II, when he was a major in the army.

Adam Schaff
(b. 1913) for many years has been recognized on the continent as the most important living theorist and exponent of Marxist philosophy. With the translation of his works into English, he is receiving increasing attention in Anglo-American philosophical circles. He studied at Lwow University and the Ecole des Sciencies Politiques et Economique at Paris in the 1930's and did scientific research in the Soviet Union during Second Worl War. In 1945 he became a prfessor at Lodz University and in 1948 was made Professor of Philosophy at Warsaw University. He was the director of the Polish United Workers' Party Insititute of Philosophy and Sociology from 1957 until the political upheaval in Poland in 1968, and he has been editor of Contemporary Thought (1946-1951) and Philosophical Thought (1951-1965), Some Problems of the Marxist Theory of Truth (1951), Introduction to Semantics (1960), and Language and cognition (1963). are among his principal works.

Peter Frederick Strawson
(b. 1919) is Waynflete Professor of Metaphysical Philosophy at Oxford and Fellow at Magdalen College. He was a scholar at St. John's College and a captain in World War II before he began to teach at Oxford in 1946. He has made important contributions to logic and metaphysics inIntroduction to Logical Theory (1952), Individuals (1959), The Bounds of Sense (1966), and a number of important articles in Mind, The Philosophical Review, and other journals. a student of Grice, Ryle, and Austin, he has in the last twenty years himself become a leader in ordinary language analysis.

Geoffrey James Warnock (b.1923) is Fellow and Tutor in Philosphy at Magdalen College at Oxford. In addition to editing J. L. Austin's papers and lectures, he has published a number of hiw own papers on problems ad methods of linguistic analysis and has lectured widely in Britain and America. Berkeley (1953) and english Philosophy Since 1900 (1958) are not only substantial contributions to history of philosphy; thye serve as vehicles for Warnock's own views on some current issues. He is the editor of The Philosphy of Perception (1967), as well as the general editor of the series to which that volume belongs.


Werner Winter (b.1923) received his Ph.D. in Switzerland from the University of Bern and for a number of years was Professor of Germanic Languages at the University of Texas. He is now engaged in teaching and research at the Seminar fur Allegemeine und Indogermanische Sprachwissenschaft at the University of Kiel. Although he is interested in poetry and problems of translation, Professor Winter's main work has been in linguistics. He edited Evidence for Laryngeals (1960) and in 1965 published a volume of his own work with the same title.

Other Links

Ludwig Weittgenstein

L. Weittgenstein and linguistic analysis (Hong Kong University serial topics)
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant, the philosopher (entries that brief on Kant)
I. Kant on the Web (by Steve Palmquist, Hong kong University)
I. Kant links
Betrand Russell
A comprehensive site about Betrand Russell
Russell: the journal of the Betrand archive
Russell researchers (a list of names and correspondence addresses)
John Searle
Searle, John - Entry from the Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind.
Searle, John - A brief introduction (Ohio State University)
Searle, John - A brief introduction(San Francisco State Unviersity)
Response to Searle
Intentionality and causality in John Searle (by David L. Thompson)
Chinese Room Argument - Analysis of Searle's Chinese Room Argument.
Searle on Metaphor - Short essay on John Searle's analysis of metaphor from the Metaphor Home Page.
Searle on the Brink - Criticism of Searle's "Rediscovery of the Mind" by Selmer Bringsjord.
The Construction of Social Reality - Review by Jerry Shaffer.
Is the Brain a Digital Computer? - by John Searle.
Minds, Brains, and Programs - John R. Searle, from Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
John L. Austin
John Langshaw Austin  (Entry in Encarta Encyclopedia)
How to Do Things with Words (by John Austin)
Paul Grice
Paul Grice (by Kent Bach)

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